The Saviolo Method for SCA Fencing
Home
Introduction of the Style
Presentations of the Sword
Movement of the Fight
Where to Put the Sword
Distance and Measure
Putting it All Together
Advanced Concepts
Saviolo's Actions
Terms
What to Wear

Part III

THE MOVEMENT OF THE FIGHT

Fighting in the SCA has some differences that we don't see in historical fencing. First, our floor surface is usually quite smooth and in itself is not a hazard. Second, our footwear can be good tennis shoes at practice, or maybe boots when on the field. For the most part, our practice area and condition may be ideal, but our actual tournaments usually take place out side in a field. That's right, we do a lot of our fighting in fields, with rocks, weeds and gopher holes; often with mud thrown in for good measure. Mostly our fields have defined boundaries. So, simply, don't train to take advantage of the optimum footing conditions. This means that if you are a fighter that likes to do powerful lunges, long strides and the like, you'll find yourself at a disadvantage when doing these maneuvers in period footwear, in mud, with grass up to your knees. Also, if you are one of those people that sprint backward, remember we have a limit to the area you can fight in. Running away backwards is the single most stupid and non-historical thing you can ever do. Well, you get the picture. Saviolo's method by chance is well suited for SCA use. First, it's upright, with the feet reasonably close together. In this it borrows much from Bolognese Style and the Spanish methods. Movement is done usually at the length of a single pace, no long line lunges (like Capo Ferro who did use long lunges). The attacks look very Spanish in that the body is upright (like DiGrassi), the back straight and the sword used to take control of the fight before attacking. Cuts seem to be right out of the older Dardi School/Bolognese Style. If a thrust comes in, the body bends around or steps around the blade much like Agrippa.

In England of the time, it was not uncommon for everyone to have a weapon of some sort. Saviolo knew this and may have created his fighting style to adapt to this reality. The weapons were diverse and many, so the stance had to be conservative in it's approach. If you extend your point far, like Fabris, you are vulnerable to a strong cut to knock it off line, and the typical English style at the time was very cut and thrust oriented (over what was thought of as a thrust oriented style in Italian styles).

Saviolo talks much of footwork, and never speaks to running away from the fight. I would like to borrow from Silver in the expression of hand and foot times. From what I have seen from Saviolo, he is in agreement with the concepts Silver talks about (but he never referees to them that way). For the greatest majority of Saviolo's work, his foot movements are in the single time of the foot, meaning it's a step or a remove or some kind of action which is more or less a single foot fall. Since he uses single time of the foot, the actions of the hand are also contained within that tempo. As fast as you can step away, is pretty much the time you have to make an action with the hand.

BUT we have a problem!! Most SCA fencers never read the damn manual. They make it up as they go along and they never really understand the restrictions that honor places onto a fight. If one is in a fight in defense of their honor, there are things you would not do as it would violate terms of honor. You don't find yourself in a fight with a sword without a good reason. Not for duels at least. If you are in a duel, it had better be for a good reason. Meaning, it's not simply a defense of your life like in war or say in a robbery. No, you are fighting because honor demands a response. This also means that there may be things you do not do, simply because you are there to defend your honor, not your life. Two different things.

I say this here in the movement of the fight, so to impress that if you just want to survive the fight, you should have brought a gun and a few friends, and/or waited for the guy to wonder too close to a dark ally. If you are only concerned with making a touch like an Olympic fighter "AH HA! I HIT MY BUZZER FIRST", you entirely miss the concept that they guy may not be dead instantaneously. You take risks because there is no consequence, true, painful and lifelong humiliating consequences for doing it wrong. You also do not avail yourself of the tactics Saviolo is teaching, if all you are worried about is hitting the buzzer firster faster.

Plate 13 from Fabris's manual, check out that measure!

When Fabris was teaching, the Italians had all but removed the cut from their lexicon. In England , the cut was still preferred. So, long extensions of the body: bad choice. Instead, Saviolo advocated a strong defense. As we know with a sword, defense is executed with the strong part of the blade, close to the hilt. He kept his point well out of range of the cutting attack that might be delivered by an English sword, which allowed him to use quick, if short thrusts to great advantage. Also it allowed for him to pick-up the other blade with the Forte of the blade, while not sacrificing the point of the blade in risky play

You will find that with Saviolo, if an opponent attacks your point they have probably moved themselves to well within your measure and they are susceptible to thrusting attacks. Yet another factor may have been the different lengths of swords present in England . A typical cutting sword is not effective over about 40 inches, and most will find that a side sword is more functional for a cut when it is around 32 inches. Blade lengths of period were all over the place, so it would make sense to train the fighter for the most conservative estimate of what type of weapon they may face. In my opinion, Saviolo's stance will work well against a pure point thrust attack style, as seen above by Fabris, or a cutting style that may have been advocated by Silver. Please note too that if one were to receive a cutting attack, the attacker will probably not begin his attack until he is in at least Middle Measure which will bring the attacker well within easy thrusting distance, negating the need for a long lunge. I feel that this may have been his intent, as it levels the playing field between two fighters with different sword styles.

Note the difference with this engagement distance over the distance from Fabris

"as for me I will begin with the single Rapier, and at this weapon will firste enter you, to the end you maye frame your hand, your foote, and your body, all which partes must goe together, and unlesse you can stirre and move all these together, you shall never be able to performe any great matter, but with great danger"

This is probably the most important thing that Saviolo has to say about his style. Although we may take it for granted that this is done today, but this concept was completely foreign to rapier fighters in England. Predominantly, English fighters followed a 1-2-3 approach, the sword, the hand and the foot moved in sequence. To honestly use this system, the hand and the foot must move at the same time. This is also true for offhand as well. Whether with a dagger or an open hand, left or right, all things must move at the same tempo. I would not want to sound like a broken record and will not wish to be saying the same thing over and over again, but consider that this concept is true with every single thing that applies to Saviolo's fight.

Saviolo meant for fighters following his method to move quick, small, nimble steps, and avoid excess and useless movement. Only move with a purpose, and primarily as a defensive means. Let the opponent attack to you, doing the work of moving their body into your measure for you. Don't let them play your blade or try to forcibly beat it out of line. To this end, Saviolo also advocated a Broad Ward, which is the one with the hilt held high at hip level, the blade well back. This makes for a feeling of being very vulnerable (it is) and is best used in combination with a dagger, or very active off hand. Also note that the body is pretty much squared against the opponent, the off hand is not falling behind the body and there is no attempt to reduce the profile as may be seen in other styles. This is because the offhand is needed to engage the blade in a distance as far out as possible. Also notice that with this ward, Saviolo's stance means that the fencer might be able to reach out and touch the point of their sword with their left hand.

Saviolo Broad Ward, again notice the close engagement distance

A little about the stance

In modern terms, we know that translation of the bodyweight is best done when big bones are used with big muscles. Test yourself. Stand in a "Cat Stance", where weight is distributed between the balls of the feet both front and back, and push off with the ball of the lead foot, to move like you are taking a pace backwards. Feel how your body weight must first be taken up by the small bones and muscles of the feet, translated through your calf muscle, then your knee, and then perhaps through the rest of your leg. Now stand in the above pictured stance, but place your body weight over your heels instead. Push off with the heel. Just straighten your leg out, nearly locking the knee. You should feel your lead thigh doing all the work. This is exactly what you want. Let the large muscles do their job, and the small ones not worry about it. This also has an added benefit of reducing the stresses to the knee and the foot. If you are in the habit of pushing off with the balls of your feet, you will soon find that you knees take quite a bit of abuse as the weight is taken up by the small tendons in and around the knee cap. By using your heel, you pretty much bypass the knee, instead letting weight transfer directly down the shin, to the heel and small and vulnerable tendons in the knee are mostly bypassed. This is a modern understanding of body kinetics and does go counter to more typical historical styles. I feel keeping your knees safe outweighs the value of the historical method.

Standing in a T Stance is a basic starting point for your foot work. Notice that the heel does not cross the instep of the foot. The weight can be divided up evenly between the feet, but in classical terms will be about 80-20. Saviolo instructs that you should stand in such a way that you can lift the front foot off the floor and not fall over.

The front leg in a proper stance is going to be nearly straight, with the back leg bent. Weight should be on the foot that is not going to be moving next. Weight with the back heel should be vertically in line with the hips. This kind of stance is mostly considered a defensive one, and a great starting point for Saviolo inspired SCA fighting.

THIS NOT THIS
 

TWO LAST THINGS! You must always use these things if you want to understand how this style worked

1) ONLY REMOVE A PACE. NEVER RUN BACKWARDS. NEVER NEVER NEVER SPRINT AWAY FROM AN OPPONNET BACKWARDS.

2) STAY ON YOUR HEELS. DO NOT USE THE TOES TO GAIN DISTANCE. ANCHOR USING THE HEEL OF THE FOOT.

Look, I mean this and I will be saying again and again, but you can't use historical fighting styles if you don't fight in a historical way. So much of what we do is totally polluted with modern athletic sports ideals that just didn't exist back then, and quite frankly make a fight look ugly, rushed and crappy. Fighters are not meant to charge at each other using brute force to beat the opponent. A gentleman was refined. He was practiced at his arte, he would comport himself understanding that every single action he took would reflect on him and his family name for eternity. In short, the control of the fight is what is called for, the hit with control, hit with means to remain safe for several tempos of action. You are not in an Olympic match with the only concern is wining by any means. There are no buzzers here. Double kills are a pathetic example of poor skill. Hitting without control is worse. Hitting wile running backwards just tells your opponent you do not respect them. If you are here and you are reading this, then you have at least come to the understanding that there are layers and layers of theory associated with historical fencing that goes far, far beyond the over competitiveness left us by a century and a half of the arte being degraded into a sport.

 
From Capo Fero, the man on the right is standing in a T stance. Notice how the heels line up

Offensive and Defensive Stance.

In keeping with the older historical Italian fighting, there is an offensive and a defensive stance. The default stance for most of Saviolo stances is going to be defensive. The front leg is straight and most of the weight is on the left heel. The leading foot is lightly on the ground. The offensive stance is different. It looks like an advance, the trailing leg is straight and the lead leg looks like an advance. In most cases, you can match defensive to defensive stances, but there will be times when it is practical to meet the defensive with the offensive.

First picture from the wood cuts, the fencer on the left is defensive, and the fencer on the right is offensive. The woodcuts are not the best, but look at the position of the lead leg. The fencer on the left has his lead leg nearly straight. The fencer on the right has the lead leg bent, and the trailing leg probably straight. Historically, fencers did not place equal weight on both feet, instead they kept the least amount of weight on the foot that will be next to move. Since there is no kicking like in an eastern style; there’s no reason to have either foot ready to launch a kick. The next pictures are offensive right lead and defensive right lead.

Also, you can think of offensive and defensive stances as being a set-up for the type of attack or action you may want to deal with. The attack stance also is handy to use against someone who thrusts. It sets up well to handle thrusts by setting your sword up to throw half tempo cuts as a defense. Cut into a thrust and thrust into a cut. You can also, by leaning forward, also create a space to move away from thrusts as well. You can retire pretty far back into a left defensive lead from the offensive.

Alternatively, your defensive stance is a safer position to be in with someone who may want to make cuts and for the cut to be effective it will need to be closer than normal SCA kinds of thrust. Cuts are defended by thrusting into them. From the defensive stance, you can thrust into offered cuts and make passing steps as a means to avoid being hit. You can also make the thrusts without having to step anywhere, with makes this a great time of the sword and hand function. It's faster to thrust when the target is moving to you. Hands are faster than feet.

Try some of these next time you fight. In the offensive stance, you may find your hand a convenient target, with much of the body safely far enough away, and you can buy time with that body distance to work out a counter. With the defensive stance, you can parry cuts, lots of thrusts, and be ready to move the body in conjunction with the defense.


Movement Drill: Advance Step, Short Measure Thrust
This advance is done from a distance of where it would take about 12 inches for the point to land on the target. This means that your opponent is going to be at Close to Middle Measure for this to be an effective attack. This is brought off with the sword in Terza, and is the basis for the part 1 drills. As a foundation for all of the attacks taught by Saviolo, the point of the sword should land at the same time that the foot falls. To draw on modern fencing which also uses this same technique, be sure to have the sword out and committed to the attack and let the feet bear the sword forward to the target. Again, this will be considered as standard procedure for all attacks from here on out; the sword, and hand moves in the same tempo as the foot.


Please note as well that Saviolo's thrust is delivered with the hand and arm significantly bent, there is no straight line directly to the opponent through the arm and shoulder, like would be seen in contemporary fencing. I have heard of this kind of thrust as a "Broken Thrust" which is markedly different than a straight thrust. Those Fabris thrusts all look like the straight kind. The broken thrusts I feel are the end results of half tempo cuts made for defense. The straight thrust will use angulation to offline the opponent’s blade, and body voids to ensure safety. The cuts used defensively simultaneously cut the sword and bring the tip into the body. The thrust is a lean in with the body, maybe a little step. Be aware, it's close! It means too that physical control of the opponents blade may be done with the hands too, so that any counter is physically stopped from happening, instead of the hope that you hit them in a way that stops them, or you have hoped that you find yourself outside of range for a counter. In most cases, I'd rather have total control of the opponent instead of hope.

Start in basic basic ward        Short advance step to target Recover the front foot back


Yes, this is simple.
-Start in Terza
-Set up out 12 inches (or the length of a foot or so)
-Mind the timing. Land the tip on the target when the foot lands. Be precise. It must land exactly in this time.
-This is a core foundation drill. Nearly all other movement will be related to this.
-Do this against a stationary target to understand Short Measure, and then against a moving opponent.
-Your target on an opponent will be what is moving and in measure (like a hand)
-Do 20 reps of this drill

Movement Drill: Advancing Step, Middle Measure Thrust

Just like the Short Pace from above, use the same principals but just change the distance. Start in the T stance with sword at Terza. Step out at with the lead foot on line, or at a slope paced step. You will want to execute a thrust and the distance the foot should cover is going to be about 24 inches. Recover to neutral.

     Start in right lead Take a good step forward, but no lunge         Recover back


-Start in Terza
-Set up out 24 inches
-Mind the timing. Land the tip on the target when the foot lands.
-Use the same principals from the Short Pace above (remember it all builds off the previous elements)
-Do this against a stationary target to understand Middle Measure, and then against a moving opponent.
-Your target on an opponent will be what is moving and in measure (like a hand)
-Do 20 reps of this drill

Movement Drill: Advancing Step, Long Measure Thrust
Just like the previous two advances, this is executed from Terza and will nearly be a lunge, just short of one. Again, I would remind the reader that Saviolo did not lunge, not at all like what would be known by other contemporary master of fence from the time period. Again, the advance here is conducted with a thrust from Terza, within the same time as the foot, all landing simultaneously.

Basic stance Advance a long step, but not quite a lunge Recover forward


-Start in Terza
-Setup out 36 inches
-Mind the timing. Land the tip on the target when the foot lands.
-Use the same principals from the Short Pace.
-Do this against a stationary target to understand Long Measure, and then against a moving opponent.
-Your target on an opponent will be what is moving and in measure (like a hand)
-Do 20 reps of this drill

                       CHECK OUT THAT LUNGE!

This plate is very interesting. It looks like it shows an evolution of the lunge. Notice the fencer in the far background, he is running up to the opponent in order to close distance. The fencer in the right in the background is taking a large paced step, not quite a full lunge as we might consider today. Finally, the fencer in the foreground is showing a very deep lunge where the greatest distance is covered, the knee is pretty far over the ankle and the bum is used as a counterbalance. Notice too that the sword here is in prima, in an attack called imbroccata.

Movement Drill: Gathering Step
A gathering step is used to put advances together. It kind of looks like crab walking, but it can actually be a great tactic in extending reach on an attack, and takes the place of a very long lunge. Using gathering steps in conjunction with advances is very useful. If you should do this, a little tip: don't bob. Sometimes with the gathering step, a fencer will bob the head and body up with the gather, which can add to a visual queue that you are up to something. A smooth gathering step will help you hide your intent and motion. If Saviolo is advising to steal measure, I would expect this is the type of movement used. VERY slow if stealing measure.

Do these without a target. Practice as a physical warm up.

       
               Start in basic stance                     Step out in an advance  Bring the left foot up to the right            Step out in an advance step


-Start in Terza
-Step out gently with the lead foot
-Bring the trailing foot back up to the same stance started from
-Do 20 slow (Stealing Measure)
-Do 20 fast (Replacement for lunge)





Movement Drill: Retreating Step
This is really just going backward from the advance. It is also a reverse of the Gathering step. Simply, bringing the front foot into the heel/instep of the rear foot, transfer weight and re-stance with neutral, or just keep going backward.



Movement Drill: Slope Paced Pass

"Therefore hee must take heede to save himselfe with good time and measure, and let him take heede that he steppe not forward toward his teacher, forso hee should bee in danger to be wounded: but let him go a little aside, as I have already saide. "


This is a passing step. The difference in a pass, over an advance is that the foot will travel in a straight line to the destination. The distance will change between the ankles as the foot passes. It may feel more comfortable if done in a walking sort of gait, or as a settled lunge like step where the weight drops down. Advances will move front foot-rear foot, front foot-rear foot (like crab walking) Saviolo also make reference to this as a Crooked Paced step as well. It is much like the advance if done from the right, just don't step straight forward, and if done from the left foot when in a right lead, it can be a walking distance step to sort of a lunge. Tempo and measure come into play as to how deep it can be. The Volte and Incartata might also be thought of as a pass too.

Left Slope Step

Right Slope Step


-This may feel very casual. It can be like an easy walk or a quick, firm and fast advance (taking the tactical place of a lunge)
-Even thought the picture does not show it, be sure to point the new lead foot to the opponent
-Land on the heels, always, land on the heels.
-Weight ends up being even between the feet at the finish.
-Go as deep as you need to, Measure in the fight determines the depth.



Here is a plate from Fabris's book, showing a rather deep left slope paced step. Right foot was in the lead prior to the motion. The fencer on the left is using a body void by means similar to a right slope paced step. It looks like it didn't work out well for him.

 

Movement Drill: Incartata
'"And if he give a foine or imbroccata, you may reach him the incartata, as before I have tolde yon."

Start from neutral, step up to the right with the left foot around behind and to the right. This is one of the more difficult steps to get across to new fencers. It is actually a passing step, since it is executed from a right lead with the left foot stepping around behind the right and forward. In this manner, the fencer does two things: first it is a Remove or a Void where the body is moved from the on coming attack and second it advances the point. So, offensively it could be considered an advance. The Incartata can actually be executed very deeply, probably more deeply than depicted by the plate from Fabris. This motion is probably best used when combined with a punta riversa, that is to say a thrust high in four.

This motion is effective by its self, but can be continued by following through with an Advance to bring the fencer to a Right Lead. Since Saviolo considers that the fencer should react within the given tempo of the attack; this move should be considered as a reaction to an attack, not an initiation of the attack. Once the Incartata is executed, it should be followed smoothly with an advance since backing up is not really an option with Saviolo.

Incartata

Fencer on the left is showing an Incartata, and the fencer on the right is showing the Left Slope Paced Step.

Start in basic stance Step the left foot behind the right and past it Step the right foot out Press the advance

 
Start in Terza
-Most of your weight will be on the lead foot.
-Swing the left foot around and extend as far as possible, it will feel like a kind of lunge.
-Note the feet will really end up pointing in the opposite direction.
-Offer a thrust in high Four, the tip landing with the left foot.
-Recover by sliding the right foot back to a lead.
-This move does not need to end in a linear lead. It can be used to keep orientation toward the opponent.
-Do 20 Reps of this drill


 

 

Movement Drill: Volte

"..the selfesame time that the scholler goes back, the maister shall play a little, and shifting his body shall breake the same imbroccata or foyne outward from the lefte side, removing with his left foote, which must be carried behind the right, and withall shall give a mandritta at the head of his scholler,.."

The volte is a lot like the incartata (it may also be referred to as a demi-volte or half-incartata), it is shallower in the step to the right, and the ankles do not pass, so it is also not really a passing step like the Incartata. The volte is executed with a circle paced step (Saviolo makes a reference to the volte by calling it a crooked paced step, which means that the foot is not moving in a straight line). For a mental picture of how this move looks, think quick Spanish dancing and you would have the idea of it. The volte can be used just as a body void to avoid a thrust.

A very good depiction of a Volte from ANGELO, Domenico (1717?-1802) Demi volte sur les coups forcs au dehors des armes [Pl. 32]

Start in neutral Step to the right with the left foot Recover to the right with the right foot Back to neutral


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Start in terza
-Most of your weight will be on the lead foot
-This shallow step is generated from the hips. Like a dance move. Unlike the incartata.
-Offer a thrust in high Four, the tip landing with the left foot.
-Recover by sliding the right foot back to a lead.
-This move does not need to end in a linear lead. It can be used to keep orientation toward the opponent.


A final comment on volte and incartata
You may notice that these movements are very similar. In other means of reference, they can be used interchangeably, sometimes considered in terms of degrees, such as a demi-volte, or a full incartata, half incartata, etc. The primary difference is that the shallower step is better as a type of void, and the longer step better for a kind of void/passing step, usually associated with an attack.

Movement Drill: Circle paced step

 
"...Wherefore at the selfesame time that the scholler shall deliver the foresaide stoccata to the teacher, the teacher shall yeelde and shrinke with his bodye, and beate the stoccata outwards on the lefte side, and shall bring his right foot a little aside in circle wise upon the right side"

Saviolo makes several references to the circle paced step, or compass pace. The motion can be executed from a left or right with either foot making the circle motion. The learning factor here is that as a stylistic component to Saviolo's fight, this step should be well understood. In our modern context of fencing, we tend to attack or move in straight lines while in the combat. And for good reason too, because the body mechanics that are used now are better understood and it is very possible to move at some very impressive speeds. Off-line steps can take a little longer, and have therefore been dismissed in the modern context. Moving the foot in a circle (in some terms also compass pace) has a few advantages when working on a non-linear plane of combat. What this kind of step allows for is a re-orientation of the body, either as a factor in a void or as part of an attack. It really goes back much further in history, so it's one of those "It has always been done this way" motions. If in armor, your body weight and center of balance is going to be thrown off. Believe me. I have lived in armor of one sort or other since I was 16, either as a police officer, Soldier or SCA fighter. I have worn all kinds of body armor and one consistent factor is that it WILL throw your center of gravity off. This type of step makes much better sense if viewed through that perspective. At any point you can stop the motion of the foot and still be perfectly in a balanced position. Not the case in a pass, since if you have to suddenly stop and plant the foot, you could end up too narrow and you will loose your feet and fall over. Since the Rapier style built off of existing combat styles, there will be many of these little hold overs that managed to stick around for a while.


There is one rule that also must be mentioned here. The lead foot must always respect the opponent. Meaning, always keep your foot pointed to the opponent. The trailing foot is usually depicted as being to a right angle to the lead, but it does not always need to be so. You may find that with this step, you will have your foot at an odd angle. How to remain stable in this is simple, keep your weight on your heels, and make sure that your lead foot is always pointing to the opponent.

If you have ever done eastern martial arts, this kind of foot movement is going to be very familiar. It keeps the movement well under control and allows for the best foot placement at any time in the motion.


Stepping circle wise

Circle paced step to the right Circle paced step to the left Circle paced step to the right Circle paced step to the left
Where the feet end up for each of the steps above


-Start in Terza
-Most of your weight will be the heel of the foot that is not moving.
-Using a snappy hip-action, swing the moving foot in an arch.
-Since this IS NOT A PASS, the distance between the ankles should remain the same from beginning to end of the step.
-At any point of the traverse, you should be able to stop the action, with weight on the heel.
-Do not use your toes, do not to a "Cat Step", it will feel more like a dance move originating in the turning of the hips, not reaching with the feet.
-Knees should be mostly evenly bent all the way through the motion. Dropping the center of gravity both brings a stop to the motion, and makes you more stable.
-If you should ever be off balance, use this step, and drop the center of gravity. If you should do this in heavy armor, it will be instantly understandable how valuable it is to know how to do this.
-Remember the "Cone of Balance", don't get the top of the body over the base of the feet.
-Do 20 reps of this drill


Movement Drill: Redouble

"If the maister stoode still, hee should bee in danger, but when the scholler shall give the mandritta, the maister must shifte a little with his bodye, and shall remoove with his right foote, which must be carried behinde his lefte, and shall strike a riverso to the head, as I saide before, when I began to speake of stoccata."

The redouble is a fighting tactic used to gain control of the opponent's blade by passing backward with the lead foot in a passing step and then coming out of the step in an advance. Normally, you will want to do this with the opponents sword on your outside, and the control of the their blade done in secunda. Saviolo was a little unique in his approach in that he often incorporated many non-linear movements in his fight. There are a few different ways in which this movement can be accomplished. It can be done with a volte/Half-incartata, as well as circle paced Step. The primary factor in this concept is to remove the body at the same tempo of the attack, usually a thrust to the outside, in order to gain control of the opponent's blade so that an attack can then be safely executed. When returning, you will use the guardia dientre. That guard will set up well for a half tempo riverso, or a thrust, but the half tempo action further pushes the opponents blade out and would look like a codelunga alta with the point perhaps in the opponents throat when completed.

I have heard this called a redoppio, but I am not sure if that was used in the correct context. There is a redoppio done with the blade, which is kind of a return, and it may make sense to think of the feet in the same way.
 

Right Lead Redouble

-Start in Terza.
-A typical stance has the front leg straight, and the rear leg bent. When doing this motion, it can be done without straightening the left leg.
-The weight will be on the heel of the left foot, and it is OK if the right toe only makes contact when it is back.
-Do 20 reps of this drill with Left and right lead.


Movement Drill: Cross Paced Step
The Crosspaced step is going to be an advance, but instead of going out on a slope, or forward on an advance, it crosses the center line and goes from right to left.



-Start in Terza.
-Step to the left side
-The weight will be on the heel of the left foot
-Replace the left foot to re-establish the right lead
-Do 20 reps of this drill with Left and right lead.


Points to emphasize


BONUS PASS! Movement Drill: Pass Through
The pass through is not used by Saviolo, but was a contemporary style of movement. It was used in the later half of the 16th century, and like anything else, is compounded from a few different things. Essentially, it's a middle paced advance with the right foot, and a slope paced step left with the left foot. It can be any combination though, but for a drill, the benefit is with training the body to move in this way without having to think about it. It can be a side step, an incartata, all kinds of things.



-Start in Terza.
-Advance using a middle paced step
-Be sure to land on the heel!
-As soon as the right heel strikes, step through with the left foot
-Now, in left lead, assemble the right foot back to right lead
-Do 20 reps of this drill with Left and right lead.


Points to emphasize

Home
Introduction of the Style
Presentations of the Sword
Movement of the Fight
Where to Put the Sword
Distance and Measure
Putting it All Together
Advanced Concepts
Saviolo's Actions
Terms
What to Wear